Controlled drugs (Schedule 8 drugs)
Prescription medication, such as Ritalin and Dexamphetamine, which have the potential to cause dependence or be abused. These are controlled substances and are to be located in a locked cabinet when not being administered.
An overarching term describing documents completed by medical practitioners or qualified health practitioners which provide the school with directions or guidelines to support students with specialised health needs. Health plans include Action Plans, Emergency Health Plans and Individual Health Plans.
> Action Plan
Developed by a medical or qualified health practitioner to provide guidelines to support a student with their specialised health need/s, for example anaphylaxis or asthma. There are a variety of nationally approved and standardised Action Plan preform as developed by peak medical organisations available for medical or qualified health practitioners to complete.
> Emergency Health Plan (EHP)
Developed when a student’s health needs may require a response from school staff that extends beyond basic first aid. It provides clear step-by-step directions of how to safely manage a predictable medical emergency specific to certain chronic health conditions and the correct use of emergency medication. The plan is developed by a qualified health practitioner, in consultation with the school staff, parent/carer, student, medical and other health professionals. The plan is developed and risk assessed for the context of the school or school related activities and is for use in these settings only.
> Individual Health Plan (IHP)
Provides school staff with an understanding of a student’s health condition and the reasonable adjustment required to accommodate the student on a daily basis at school and to inform school planning. The plan is developed by a qualified health practitioner, in consultation with the school staff, parent/carer, student, medical and when necessary, other health professionals. The plan is developed and risk assessed for the context of the school or school related activities and is for use in these settings only.
For the purposes of this procedure, medical authorisation may take the form of a prescribing health practitioner’s letter, an Action Plan or Individual/Emergency Health Plan signed by the health practitioner or the original medication with a completed current pharmacy label.
A doctor registered with the Medical Board of Australia, through the Registers of Practitioners, Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA).
Any preventable error in administration that may cause or lead to harm to a student. Medication errors in a school environment occur for a variety of reasons, for example:
- poor recording of medication administered to students
- misreading label
- poor labelling
- a student taking another student’s medication
- confusion over dose required.
A medication error includes any failure to administer medication as prescribed for a particular student, including failure to administer the right medication:
- to the right student
- within appropriate timeframes
- in the correct dosage
- by the correct route.
For the purposes of this procedure, medications are categorised according to the method for purchasing the medication (over-the-counter medications, prescription medications) or the frequency within which the medication is administered (emergency medication, routine medication, short-term medication).
> Emergency medications
Medications required for the emergency treatment of medical conditions, e.g. Midazolam for specific seizures, adrenaline auto-injectors for anaphylaxis, blue reliever for asthma.
> First aid emergency medications
Medications which are dispensed in devices that non-medical personnel can be trained to use as a first aid response and retained in the school’s first aid kit, e.g. adrenaline auto-injectors for anaphylaxis, asthma reliever for asthma.
> Over-the-counter medication (OTC)
Medications for self-treatment, purchased from pharmacies, supermarkets, health food stores and other retailers, without advice from a medical practitioner. Examples include cold remedies, cough syrups, anti-fungal treatments, non-prescription analgesics such as paracetamol as well as alternative medicines (traditional or complementary) such as herbal, aromatherapy and homoeopathic preparations, vitamins, minerals and nutritional supplements.
> Prescription medication
Medications prescribed by a prescribing health practitioner under the Health (Drugs and Poisons) Regulation 1996 (Qld), are dispensed by a pharmacist. It is often difficult for parents/carers to obtain a separate written authority from their medical practitioner to give to the school, as the pharmacist and the doctor recognise that the doctor's prescription is the legal written authority required. Therefore, the presentation of the original medication container with an attached prescription pharmacy label constitutes a medical authority.
> Routine medication
Prescription medication required regularly for management of a specific disorder, e.g. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; or health condition, e.g. cystic fibrosis. epilepsy, diabetes.
> Short-term medication
For the purposes of this procedure, prescription medication required for acute conditions, e.g. one course of antibiotics to treat infection.
A label attached to the original prescription medication container including the:
student’s full name
- strength and description/name of the medication
- dose and route of administration (may include the duration of therapy)
- initials/logo of the pharmacist taking responsibility
- time or interval the medication is to be taken
- any other relevant directions for use, e.g. whether the medication is to be taken with food.
The pharmacy label may also include the name of the medical practitioner, which indicates that it has been prescribed.
Prescribing health practitioner
A health professional who has completed the appropriate training, giving them the authority to prescribe certain medications under the Health (Drugs and Poisons) Regulation 1996 (Qld) e.g. medical practitioner (doctor), dentist, optometrist, nurse practitioner.
Qualified Health Practitioner
A health professional with the relevant licencing, skills and knowledge to assess, plan and evaluate care. This can be the student’s treating medical practitioner/health team or State Schools Registered Nurses (SSRN). Qualified Health Practitioners are registered with the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency or eligible for membership in the relevant national professional body.
A measure or action (or a group of measures or actions) taken by an education provider that has the effect of assisting a student with a disability to participate in education on the same basis as a student without a disability, and includes an aid, a facility, or a service that the student requires because of his or her disability (Ref: Section 3.3 in the Disability Standards for Education 2005 at http://docs.education.gov.au/node/16354)
Route of administration
The method by which medication is administered may include:
- oral: given via the mouth i.e. swallowed in the form of a tablet, capsule or liquid
- sublingual: placed under the tongue and absorbed via the mucous membrane
- enteral: given via nasogastric or gastrostomy tube
- topical: substance applied directly on the skin or area directed as a cream, ointment, skin patch, ear/eye drops
- inhalation: such as inhalers and spacers for asthma
- injection: a needle given into a fat layer or muscle through the skin such as adrenaline auto-injector or insulin
- rectally: suppositories or enemas.