Acceptable level of residual risk
An acceptable level of risk exists when the educational outcomes expected to be achieved in undertaking an activity justify doing the activity, given the level of risk.
Residual risk is the level of risk remaining after the controls have been put in place.
Actions implemented to eliminate or minimise a risk as far as is reasonably practicable. Control measures should be regularly reviewed to ensure their effectiveness.
Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment (CARA)
A document that records the risk management process that a school has undertaken prior to the curriculum activity occurring.
Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment (CARA) activity guideline
Information that has been collated about an activity to assist staff to assess and minimise risks and conduct the activity as safely as possible.
Curriculum activity risk management
The process of managing the risks of curriculum activities, involving:
- identification of potential hazards
- assessment of the inherent risk level
- identification and implementation of controls to mitigate risk
- monitoring and review of controls to ensure ongoing effectiveness.
For high and extreme risk activities, a CARA (and approval) is also required prior to the activity being undertaken.
Duty of care
Under common law, those responsible for curriculum activities must take reasonable care to avoid foreseeable risks of injury, for example:
- making sure that activities are safe and appropriate for students’ ages and abilities
- ensuring students are properly instructed and prepared for the activities
- ensuring all equipment is in a safe condition
- providing adequate supervision.
Extreme risk activity
An activity that is inherently dangerous. There is a high chance of a serious incident occurring that would result in a highly debilitating injury.
Anything that has the potential to cause harm to a person (e.g. electricity, chemicals). Hazards generally arise from the physical environment, equipment or materials used, and how the activity is designed, performed and managed.
Hierarchy of control
Control measures should be considered and used in this order:
- Elimination: remove the hazard completely from the workplace or activity
- Substitution: replace a hazard with a less dangerous one (e.g. using a softer ball, different location)
- Isolation: separate people from the hazard (e.g. safety barrier)
- Redesign: changing a work process or layout of a work area
- Administration: putting rules or training in place to make a workplace safer
- Personal Protective Equipment: protective clothing and equipment (e.g. helmet, gloves, shin-pads).
High risk activity
An activity where there is a likely chance of a significant incident resulting in injury or illness requiring medical treatment.
Inherent level of risk
The level of risk existing before any controls are put in place, relating to:
- the nature of the activity
- those involved, including:
- age and ability of students
- competence of leaders
- equipment used
- environment in which the activity is undertaken.
A responsibility under relevant law. For example, the Work Health and Safety Act 2011 places specific duties on persons.
Low risk activity
An activity that has little chance of an incident occurring which would result in an injury.
Medium risk activity
An activity that has some chance of an incident occurring which would result in an injury requiring first aid.
Parents/carers, volunteers, external coaches and leaders involved in planning, delivering or supervising any curriculum activity.